Grade 5 Spelling Set 5 Correct and Check

[qwiz random=”true”] [q]Type in the correct spelling for: gastronomik: [textentry].

Type in your answer to check.[c*]gastronomic

[q]Type in the correct spelling for: devise: [textentry].

Type in your answer to check.[c*]device

[q]Type in the correct spelling for: pirsonifikytion: [textentry].

Type in your answer to check.[c*]personification

[q]Type in the correct spelling for: thotfull: [textentry].

Type in your answer to check.[c*]thoughtful

[q]Type in the correct spelling for: sumarise: [textentry].

Type in your answer to check.[c*]summarise

[q]Type in the correct spelling for: humorus: [textentry].

Type in your answer to check.[c*]humorous

[q]Type in the correct spelling for: gestjur: [textentry].

Type in your answer to check.[c*]gesture

[q]Type in the correct spelling for: bazarre: [textentry].

Type in your answer to check.[c*]bizarre

[q]Type in the correct spelling for: smirc: [textentry].

Type in your answer to check.[c*]smirk

[q]Type in the correct spelling for: konjunktoin: [textentry].

Type in your answer to check.[c*]conjunction

[q]Type in the correct spelling for: vertikil: [textentry].

Type in your answer to check.[c*]vertical

[/qwiz]

Grade 5 Spelling Set 5 Listen & Write

[qwiz random=”true”] [h]Click player to listen, Flip to check spelling [i]Instructions:
  1. You will need pen and paper
  2. Click on the arrow to listen to the word.
  3. Write down the word.
  4. Click to check the spelling.
  5. Select Need more practice or Got it! to continue.
[q]Listen to the word and write it down.

[c]Click to check answer [f]gastronomic [q]Listen to the word and write it down.

[c]Click to check answer [f]ductile [q]Listen to the word and write it down.

[c]Click to check answer [f]withstand [q]Listen to the word and write it down.

[c]Click to check answer [f]brittle [q]Listen to the word and write it down.

[c]Click to check answer [f]lustre [q]Listen to the word and write it down.

[c]Click to check answer [f]property [q]Listen to the word and write it down.

[c]Click to check answer [f]classified [q]Listen to the word and write it down.

[c]Click to check answer [f]generation [q]Listen to the word and write it down.

[c]Click to check answer [f]pollination [q]Listen to the word and write it down.

[c]Click to check answer [f]mature [q]Listen to the word and write it down.

[c]Click to check answer [f]food chain [q]Listen to the word and write it down.

[c]Click to check answer [f]bizarre [q]Listen to the word and write it down.

[c]Click to check answer [f]conjunction [q]Listen to the word and write it down.

[c]Click to check answer [f]device [q]Listen to the word and write it down.

[c]Click to check answer [f]gesture [q]Listen to the word and write it down.

[c]Click to check answer [f]humorous [q]Listen to the word and write it down.

[c]Click to check answer [f]personification [q]Listen to the word and write it down.

[c]Click to check answer [f]smirk [q]Listen to the word and write it down.

[c]Click to check answer [f]summarise [q]Listen to the word and write it down.

[c]Click to check answer [f]thoughtful [q]Listen to the word and write it down.

[c]Click to check answer [f]vertical [/qwiz]

Grade 5 Spelling Set 5 Learn & Write

[qdeck random=”true”]

[q]gastronomic

[a]Now write down the word on your paper. Flip Back to check your spelling.

[q]device

[a]Now write down the word on your paper. Flip Back to check your spelling.

[q]personification

[a]Now write down the word on your paper. Flip Back to check your spelling.

[q]thoughtful

[a]Now write down the word on your paper. Flip Back to check your spelling.

[q]summarise

[a]Now write down the word on your paper. Flip Back to check your spelling.

[q]humorous

[a]Now write down the word on your paper. Flip Back to check your spelling.

[q]gesture

[a]Now write down the word on your paper. Flip Back to check your spelling.

[q]bizarre

[a]Now write down the word on your paper. Flip Back to check your spelling.

[q]smirk

[a]Now write down the word on your paper. Flip Back to check your spelling.

[q]conjunction

[a]Now write down the word on your paper. Flip Back to check your spelling.

[q]vertical

[a]Now write down the word on your paper. Flip Back to check your spelling.

[/qdeck]

Endocrine Review

[qdeck random=”true”]

[h]Retrieval practice – best way of learning. Answers on paper.

[i]Answer each question as best you can. Flip the card to review your answer. It is best practise to write your answer on paper before flipping the card. If your answer is correct, click Got It! or Need more practise to keep the card.

[q]Name 10 endocrine glands.

[a]

  1. Pituitary gland
  2. Thyroid gland
  3. Parathyroid glands
  4. Adrenal glands
  5. Pancreas
  6. Kidney
  7. Testis
  8. Ovary
  9. Corpus luteum
  10. Pineal gland

[q]Identify the structures indicated by the top left and bottom right arrows. [a] This normal ovary was removed in the course of a hysterectomy for uterine disease. The bright yellow corpus luteum is fully developed, as it would be in the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle following ovulation. The corpus luteum produces progesterone, which supports the endometrium’s ability to accommodate the implanted conceptus. If a conceptus implants, the corpus luteum grows even bigger, to form the so-called “corpus luteum of pregnancy.” If no pregnancy occurs, the corpus luteum shrinks dramatically to become a corpus albicans. This ovary also sports several corpora albicantia from previous months’ cycles, one of which is marked.

[q]Name the hormones for each of 10 endocrine organs.

[a]Use your resources and textbook to check the answers.

[q]Where are the parathyroid glands located?

[a]Parathyroid glands are located in the neck of humans on the back of the thyroid gland.

[q]Complete the sentence: P_____ hormone and c_____ have key roles in regulating the amount of c_____ in the blood and within the b_____.

[a]Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin have key roles in regulating the amount of calcium in the blood and within the bones.

[q]Which endocrine organ are coloured red and green respectively in this diagram?

Thyroid and parathyroid

Image by Cristobal carrasco

[a]Red/orange = thyroid; green = parathyroid

[q]With which organ does the parathyroid glands share blood supply, and venous and lymphatic drainage?

[a]The blood supply, drainage, and lymphatic drainage of the parathyroid glands correspond to the overlying thyroid.

[q]Name the two unique cells present in the parathyroid gland.

[a]Chief cells, synthesize and release parathyroid hormone. Chief cells are small, and appear dark when loaded with parathyroid hormone, and clear when the hormone has been secreted, or in a resting state.
Oxyphil cells, are lighter in appearance and increase in number with age. The function of oxyphil cells are unknown.

[q]Which gland is implicated in increased circulating calcium?

[a]Parathyroid glands.

[q]Identify the tissue and/or organ. Name 3 cells visible on this slide. What are their functions?

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported Copyright 2011 Michael Bonert https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Nephron https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
Copyright 2011 Michael Bonert

[a]

  • Parathyroid gland.
  • Chief cells = secreting parathyroid hormone;
  • Oxyphil cells = function unknown;
  • Fat cells = fat storage for energy, increasing with age.

[q]Identify the tissue and/or organ. Name 3 cells visible on this slide. What are their functions?

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported Copyright 2011 Michael Bonert https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Nephron https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
Copyright 2011 Michael Bonert

[a]

  • Parathyroid gland.
  • Chief cells = secreting parathyroid hormone;
  • Oxyphil cells = function unknown;
  • Fat cells = fat storage for energy, increasing with age.

[q]Identify the tissue and/or organ. Name 3 cells visible on this slide. What are their functions?

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported Copyright 2011 Michael Bonert https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Nephron https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
Copyright 2011 Michael Bonert

[a]

  • Parathyroid gland.
  • Chief cells = secreting parathyroid hormone;
  • Oxyphil cells = function unknown;
  • Fat cells = fat storage for energy, increasing with age.

[q]Identify the tissue and/or organ. Name 3 cells visible on this slide. What are their functions?

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported Copyright 2011 Michael Bonert https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Nephron

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
Copyright 2011 Michael Bonert

[a]

  • Parathyroid gland.
  • Chief cells = secreting parathyroid hormone;
  • Oxyphil cells = function unknown;
  • Fat cells = fat storage for energy, increasing with age.

[q]What is the corpus luteum?

[a]The corpus luteum develops from an ovarian follicle during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, following the release of a secondary oocyte from the follicle during ovulation. The follicle first forms a corpus hemorrhagicum before it becomes a corpus luteum, but the term refers to the visible collection of blood, left after rupture of the follicle, that secretes progesterone. While the oocyte (later the zygote if fertilization occurs) traverses the Fallopian tube into the uterus, the corpus luteum remains in the ovary.

[q]

Fill in the missing words:

The corpus luteum develops from an _____ follicle during the _____ phase of the _____ cycle, following the release of a _____ oocyte from the follicle during ovulation. The follicle first forms a corpus _____ before it becomes a corpus _____, but the term refers to the visible collection of blood, left after rupture of the follicle, that secretes _____. While the oocyte (later the _____ if fertilization occurs) traverses the _____ tube into the uterus, the corpus luteum remains in the _____.

[a]

The corpus luteum develops from an ovarian follicle during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, following the release of a secondary oocyte from the follicle during ovulation. The follicle first forms a corpus hemorrhagicum before it becomes a corpus luteum, but the term refers to the visible collection of blood, left after rupture of the follicle, that secretes progesterone. While the oocyte (later the zygote if fertilization occurs) traverses the Fallopian tube into the uterus, the corpus luteum remains in the ovary.

[q]Progesterone is synthesized from _____?

[a]Progesterone is synthesized from cholesterol.

[q]Complete the table related to the corpus luteum:

Follicular structure Luteal structure Secretion
_____ cells _____ cells _____, _____
_____ cells _____ cells _____, _____ and _____A

[a]

Follicular structure Luteal structure Secretion
Theca cells Theca lutein cells androgens, progesterone
Granulosa cells Granulosa lutein cells progesterone, estrogen and inhibin A

[q]What is the function of the corpus luteum?

[a]The corpus luteum is essential for establishing and maintaining pregnancy. The corpus luteum secretes progesterone, a steroid hormone responsible for the decidualization and maintenance of the endometrium.

[q]What happens to the corpus luteum if the oocyte is not fertilised?

[a]The corpus luteum stops secreting progesterone and decays. It then degenerates into a corpus albicans, a mass of fibrous scar tissue.

If fertilization and implantation occurs, the corpus luteum continue progesterone secretion, maintaining the endometrium of the uterus and providing an area rich in blood vessels where the zygote can develop. The corpus luteum is now called the corpus luteum graviditatis. [q] Identify 1 to 10:
Gray1163 [a] Gray1163
1. Outer covering. 1’. Attached border. 2. Central stroma. 3. Peripheral stroma. 4. Bloodvessels. 5. Vesicular follicles in their earliest stage. 6, 7, 8. More advanced follicles. 9. An almost mature follicle. 9’. Follicle from which the ovum has escaped. 10. Corpus luteum. [q]Where is the pituitary gland located?

[a]The pituitary gland or hypophysis protrude from the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. The hypophysis is enclosed by the sphenoid bone in the center of the middle cranial fossa. The bony enclosure is called the sella turcica.

[q]Describe the histological parts of the pituitary.

[a]The anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) regulates several physiological processes related to stress, growth, reproduction, and lactation. The intermediate lobe synthesizes and secretes melanocyte-stimulating hormone. The posterior pituitary (or neurohypophysis) is connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence via a small tube called the infundibular stalk or the infundibulum.

[q]What does the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland do?

[a]Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland help control: growth, blood pressure, certain functions of the sex organs, thyroid glands and metabolism as well as some aspects of pregnancy, childbirth, nursing, water and salt concentration and the kidneys, temperature regulation and pain relief.

[q]What are the main classes of hormones synthesized and secreted by the anterior pituitary? [a]

  • Somatotrophins: Human growth hormone
  • Thyrotrophins: Thyroid-stimulating hormone
  • Corticotropins: Adrenocorticotropic hormone Beta-endorphin
  • Lactotrophins: Prolactin
  • Gonadotropins: Luteinizing hormone Follicle-stimulating hormone

[q]What organ or area regulate hormone secretion by the anterior pituitary?

[a]The hypothalamus. Hypothalamus hormones are secreted to the anterior lobe via a special capillary system, called the hypothalamic-hypophysial portal system.

[q]Which hormone is synthesized and secreted by the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland? [a]Melanocyte–stimulating hormone

[q]Which hormones are synthesized and secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland? [a]None – the posterior pituitary only stores and secretes endocrine hormones. It does not synthesize any hormones. Hormones stored and secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary are antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin.

[q]Which hormone are stored and secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland? [a]Antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin.

[q]Label the sketch [a] [q]Label the sketch Gray1180 [a]Gray1180 [q]Label the sketch Gray1181unlabeled [a]Gray1181unlabeled [q]Identify the major parts of the hypothalamus-hypophysis complex.

[a] [q]Describe the anatomical relations of the pituitary gland. Hypophyse [a]Refer to your anatomy atlas to identify the various structures defining the anatomical relations of the pituitary gland as seen on this diagram. Hypophyse [q]Identify the tissue/gland. Name the hormones secreted by this gland. [a] Pars distalis of the anterior pituitary gland.

Hormones of the anterior pituitary gland:

  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone
  • Beta-endorphin
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone
  • Luteinizing hormone
  • Growth hormone
  • Prolactin
  • Leptin

[q]Identify the tissue/gland. Name the hormones secreted/stored/synthesized by the section visible on the left and the section on the right.

[a]

Pars distalis of the anterior pituitary gland on the left and pars intermedia on the left.

Hormones of the anterior pituitary gland:

  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone
  • Beta-endorphin
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone
  • Luteinizing hormone
  • Growth hormone
  • Prolactin
  • Leptin

[q]Identify the tissue/gland. Name the hormones secreted/stored/synthesized by the section visible on the left, middle and right of the section.

Description 	 English: Histology of pituitary gland Date 	10 June 2014 Source 	Own work Author 	Athikhun.suw             Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International

Author Athikhun.suw
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International

[a]

Description 	 English: Histology of pituitary gland Date 	10 June 2014 Source 	Own work Author 	Athikhun.suw             Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International

Author Athikhun.suw
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International

Pars distalis of the anterior pituitary gland on the left, pars intermedia in the middle and pars nervosa on the right.

Hormones of the anterior pituitary gland:

  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone
  • Beta-endorphin
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone
  • Luteinizing hormone
  • Growth hormone
  • Prolactin
  • Leptin

Hormones secreted by the pars nervosa:

  • Oxytocin
  • Vasopressin

[q]Identify the tissue/gland. Name the hormones secreted/stored/synthesized by the various areas visible on the slide.

Description 	 English: Histology of pituitary gland Date 	10 June 2014 Source 	Own work Author 	Athikhun.suw             Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International

Author Athikhun.suw
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International

[a]

Description 	 English: Histology of pituitary gland Date 	10 June 2014 Source 	Own work Author 	Athikhun.suw             Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International

Author Athikhun.suw
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International

Pars distalis of the anterior pituitary gland on the left, pars intermedia in the middle and pars nervosa on the right.

Hormones of the anterior pituitary gland:

  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone
  • Beta-endorphin
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone
  • Luteinizing hormone
  • Growth hormone
  • Prolactin
  • Leptin

Hormones secreted by the pars nervosa:

  • Oxytocin
  • Vasopressin

[q]What are the histological components of the posterior pituitary?

[a]The posterior pituitary is the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland which is part of the endocrine system. The posterior pituitary is not glandular like the anterior pituitary. The posterior pituitary is a collection of axonal projections from the hypothalamus. The posterior pituitary is a store for the later release of neurohypophysial hormones. The pars nervosa includes Herring bodies and pituicytes. The axons from the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus terminate in the posterior pituitary. Neurohypophysial hormones oxytocin and vasopressin are stored and released into the neurohypohyseal capillaries. The posterior pituitary also contains pituicytes, specialized glial cells resembling astrocytes assisting in the storage and release of the hormones.

[q]What are Herring bodies?

[a]Herring bodies are a histologic feature of the neurohypophysis. Under a electron microscope, these are dilated areas or bulges in the terminal portion of axons that contain clusters of neurosecretory granules. The granules contain oxytocin or antidiuretic hormone. Herring bodies often are seen in association with capillaries.

[q]What are pituicytes?

[a]Pituicytes are glial cells of the posterior pituitary. Pituicytes assist in the storage and release of neurohypophysial hormones. Pituicytes stain dark purple with an H&E stain. Pituicytes have an irregular and branched shape which resembles that of astrocytes. Pituicytes surround axonal endings and regulate hormone secretion by releasing their processes from these endings. Ultrastructural studies have shown that pituicytes completely surround neurosecretory axons and axonal endings, and release these neural processes when conditions require increased hormone output. Any hormone that is secreted must pass through the basal lamina and into the perivascular spaces in order to enter the fenestrated capillaries, pituicyte interpositions form physical, and perhaps chemical, barriers to hormone entering the circulation. Increasing hormone demand results in retraction of pituicyte processes from the basal lamina, permitting increased neural contact.

[q]How does the hypothalamus interact with the pituitary gland?

[a]Anterior pituitary: Hypophyseal portal system.

Posterior pituitary: Nerves running down the pituitary stalk.

[q]What is the infundibulum?

[a]Also known as the infundibulum, infundibular stalk or pituitary stalk, the infundibulum bridges the hypothalamic and hypophyseal systems.

[q]Name the hormones associated with the posterior pituitary. Where are these hormones synthesized?

[a]Hormones known classically as posterior pituitary hormones are synthesized by the hypothalamus. They are oxytocin and vasopressin.

[q]Describe the underlying origin and symptoms of diabetes insipidus.

[a]Insufficient secretion of vasopressin by the posterior pituitary underlies diabetes insipidus, a condition in which the body loses the capacity to concentrate urine. This lead to an increase in urination.

[q]What processes are regulated by the anterior pituitary? [a]The anterior pituitary regulates several physiological processes including stress, growth, reproduction and lactation.

[q]Describe the histological structure of the anterior pituitary.

[a]The anterior pituitary is composed of three regions, the pars distalis, pars tuberalis and pars intermedia. The pars distalis is where the bulk of pituitary hormone production occurs. The pars distalis contains two types of cells namely chromophobe cells and chromophil cells. The chromophils can be further divided into acidophils and basophils. These cells all together produce hormones of the anterior pituitary, and release them into the blood stream. Pars tuberalis The pars tuberalis forms a part of the sheath extending up from the pars distalis which joins with the pituitary stalk (also known as the infundibular stalk or infundibulum), arising from the posterior lobe. Function of the pars tuberalis is poorly understood. Earlier studies have shown a localisation of melatonin receptors in this region. Pars intermedia The pars intermedia sits between the pars distalis and the posterior pituitary, forming the boundary between the anterior and posterior pituitaries. It is very small and indistinct in humans.

[q]What are the five types of cells present in the anterior pituitary gland?

[a]The anterior pituitary contains five types of endocrine cell, and they are defined by the hormones they secrete:

  1. somatotropes (GH);
  2. prolactins (PRL);
  3. gonadotropes (LH and FSH);
  4. corticotropes (ACTH) and
  5. thyrotropes (TSH).[6]

[q]What is the main regulator of pituitary gland function?

[a]The pituitary gland is under hypothalamic control. Hormone secretion from the anterior pituitary gland is regulated by releasing hormones secreted by the hypothalamus.

[q]Identify the tissue/organ:

Author Nephron

[a]

Intermediate magnification of the thyroid gland. H&E stain.
“Solid cell nests of the thyroid. A histologic and immunohistochemical study.”. Am J Clin Pathol 101 (2): 186-91.
Author: Nephron

[q]Identify the tissue/organ:

Author Nephron

[a]

High magnification of the thyroid gland. H&E stain.
“Solid cell nests of the thyroid. A histologic and immunohistochemical study.”. Am J Clin Pathol 101 (2): 186-91.
Author: Nephron

[q]Identify the tissue/organ:

Author Nephron

[a]

Very high magnification of the thyroid gland. H&E stain.
“Solid cell nests of the thyroid. A histologic and immunohistochemical study.”. Am J Clin Pathol 101 (2): 186-91.
Author: Nephron

[q]Identify the endocrine gland:

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Adrenal_gland_%28cortex%29.JPG English: Author's own picture. Digital camera shot though a microscope; human adrenal gland. 3 March 2007 Author 	Jpogi https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Jpogi

Author Jpogi
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Jpogi

[a]Adrenal gland

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Adrenal_gland_%28cortex%29.JPG English: Author's own picture. Digital camera shot though a microscope; human adrenal gland. 3 March 2007 Author 	Jpogi https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Jpogi

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Adrenal_gland_%28cortex%29.JPG
Human adrenal gland.
3 March 2007
Author Jpogi
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Jpogi

[q]Name the different areas of this gland, from right to left. What are the hormones secreted in each area or zone?

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Adrenal_gland_%28cortex%29.JPG English: Author's own picture. Digital camera shot though a microscope; human adrenal gland. 3 March 2007 Author 	Jpogi https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Jpogi

Author Jpogi
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Jpogi

[a]Adrenal gland:

From right to left is the –

  1. Fibrous capsule
  2. Cortex:
    • Zona glomerulosa (directly underneath the capsule) – aldosterone
    • Zona fasciculata – cortisol
    • Zona reticularis (adjacent to the medulla) – androgens
  3. Medulla: Adrenaline and noradrenaline
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Adrenal_gland_%28cortex%29.JPG English: Author's own picture. Digital camera shot though a microscope; human adrenal gland. 3 March 2007 Author 	Jpogi https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Jpogi

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Adrenal_gland_%28cortex%29.JPG
English: Author’s own picture. Digital camera shot though a microscope; human adrenal gland.
3 March 2007
Author Jpogi
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Jpogi

[/qdeck]