Blood vessels retrieval practice

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[q] All blood vessels consist of three main layers. The layers will be different dependent on the type, location and function of the blood vessel. List the three layers.

[a]

  1. Tunica intima
  2. Tunica media
  3. Tunica adventitia

[q]Which main layer of which blood vessels are implicated in atherosclerosis?

[a]The endothelium layer of medium and large arteries.

[q]Which main layer of which blood vessels are implicated in deep vein thrombosis?

[a]Venous stasis around the valves combined with damage to the endothelium of deep veins of primarily the legs.

[q]Which main layer of which blood vessels are implicated in aneurysms?

[a]Aneurysms can occur in all blood vessels. A true aneurysm involves all three layers of the wall of an artery. A false aneurysm is a collection of blood leaking out of an artery or vein, but confined by the surrounding tissue. 

[q]Name three functions of blood and blood vessels?
[a]
Transport oxygen, nutrients and waste products.
Assist to maintain body temperature.
Equalise and maintain blood pressure.

[q]What are vasa vasorum?
[a]Small blood vessels in the tunica adventitia of large blood vessels that supplies oxugen and nutrients to the inner layers of the blood vessel.

[q]What are vasa nervosum?
[a]Small blood vessels that supply blood to peripheral nerves.

[q]Illustrated is a micro-aneurism in the retina from a study on the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Which cell provide vascular stability and control endothelial proliferation that protects against micro-aneurisms?
[a]Pericyte loss, microaneurysms, and acellular capillaries are characteristic for the diabetic retina. From Pericytes and the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy (http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/51/10/3107.long)

[q]Where does most blood vessels receive nutrients and oxygen from?
[a]Directly from the blood.

[q]Where does thick blood vessels receive nutrients and oxygen from?
[a]Via the vasa vasorum.

[q]Which blood vessel plays a role in cancer metastasis?
[a]Lymphatic vessels.

[q]Explain shortly the mechanism for blood distribution to the five extremities of the body. Focus on the contribution of histological structures.
[a]

[q]Explain shortly the mechanism for blood return from the five extremities of the body. Focus on the contribution of histological structures.
[a]

[q]Make a drawing of a generic blood vessel.
[a]

[q]Make an annotated drawing of a generic blood vessel.
[a]

[q]Make a diagram illustrating a longitudinal and cross-section view of an elastic artery.
[a]

[q]Make a diagram illustrating a longitudinal and cross-section view of a muscular artery.
[a]

[q]Make a diagram illustrating a longitudinal and cross-section view of an arterioli.
[a]

[q]Make a diagram illustrating a longitudinal and cross-section view of a continuous capillary.
[a]

[q]Make a diagram illustrating a longitudinal and cross-section view of a fenestrated capillary.
[a]

[q]Make a diagram illustrating a longitudinal and cross-section view of a venule.
[a]

[q]Make a diagram illustrating a longitudinal and cross-section view of a medium vein.
[a]

[q]Make a diagram illustrating a longitudinal and cross-section view of a large vein.
[a]

[q]Make a diagram illustrating a longitudinal and cross-section view of a lymph vessel.
[a]

[q]Explain the main functional layer of an elastic artery. Give one example of such a vessel.
[a]Media, multiple elastic laminae/sheets

[q]Explain the main functional layer of a muscular artery. Give one example of such a vessel.
[a]Media, lamina elastica interna

[q]Explain the main functional layer of an arterioli. Give one example of such a vessel.
[a]Lamina elastica interna

[q]Explain the main functional layer of a continuous capillary. Give one example of such a vessel.
[a]Endothelium with tight junctions

[q]Explain the main functional layer of a continuous capillary. Give one example of such a vessel.
[a]Endothelium with pores.

[q]Explain the main functional layer of a sinusoid. Give one example of such a vessel.
[a]Endothelium with intercellular gaps and incomplete basement membrane.

[q]Explain the main functional layer of an venule. Give one example of such a vessel.
[a]

[q]Explain the main functional layer of a medium vein. Give one example of such a vessel.
[a]

[q]Explain the main functional layer of a large vein. Give one example of such a vessel.
[a]

[q]Explain the main functional layer of a lymphatic vessel. Give one example of such a vessel.
[a]

[q]What is characteristic of each of the layers of the generic blood vessel?
[a]
Tunica intima: endothelium, basal lamina, pericytes, fibrocollagenous support tissue.
Tunica media: smooth muscle + elastic laminae ? elastic tissue + autonomic nerves
Tunica adventitia: collagen + smooth muscle + vasa vasorum

[q]What is the role of autonomic nerves in the tunica media of blood vessels?
[a]Innervate the smooth muscle fibers.

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